Designing a Food Forest: Bridging Nature and Technology
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Designing a Food Forest: Bridging Nature and Technology

Tags
Thought Experiments
Systems
Research
Software Development
Published
June 20, 2024
Author
Creating a sustainable food forest is an art and science that requires understanding the complex interplay of plants, soil, weather, and biodiversity. As we increasingly rely on digital tools for various aspects of life, integrating technology with permaculture can revolutionize how we approach food forest design and maintenance. I recently took part in a thought exercise on exactly that. I was asked to explore the vision, challenges, and success criteria for developing a digital tool to assist in creating thriving permaculture food forests.
 

Exploring the Wonders of Food Forests and Permaculture

Before we start, let’s take a look at what a food forest is. A food forest is a sustainable and productive ecosystem designed to mimic the natural patterns of a forest whilst producing, well, food. Unlike conventional gardens, food forests are layered with diverse plants that work together harmoniously.
The term permaculture is often used in conjunction with food forests. Permaculture, short for "permanent agriculture," is a design philosophy that aims to create sustainable and self-sufficient agricultural systems. It draws inspiration from natural ecosystems, emphasizing diversity, resilience, and synergy among all living elements.
Here's a quick look at a possible structure of a food forest integrating permaculture principles on a high abstraction level:
Canopy Layer: Tall fruit and nut trees form the uppermost layer, providing shade and shelter.
Understory Layer: Smaller trees and large shrubs thrive under the canopy.
Shrub Layer: Berry bushes and other mid-sized plants grow abundantly.
Herbaceous Layer: Herbs, vegetables, and groundcovers spread out across the forest floor.
Root Layer: Root vegetables like potatoes and carrots enrich the soil.
Vine Layer: Climbing plants weave through trees and shrubs.

The Magic Behind Food Forests and Permaculture

But what makes the above mentioned structure so special? What is the magic behind food forests? Once a food forest is established, it requires less maintenance than traditional gardens. The plants take care of each other, reducing the need for watering, weeding, and fertilizing.
A variety of plants attract different insects, birds, and animals, creating a balanced ecosystem that naturally controls pests and diseases. The diverse plant roots improve soil structure and fertility, leading to healthier crops. By working with nature, food forests and permaculture reduce the need for synthetic inputs, making them environmentally friendly.

Why Embrace Food Forests and Permaculture?

Creating a food forest or practicing permaculture isn't just about growing food - it's about you fostering a deeper connection with nature and promoting a healthier planet. It’s a step towards self-sufficiency, resilience, and a greener future. Whether you have a small backyard or a vast piece of land, you can start integrating these principles to create your own slice of an edible paradise.

The Role of Digital Tools in Planning Food Forests

In today's digital age, creating a food forest can be made easier and more efficient with the help of technology. Traditionally, the planning and documentation of food forests is carried out in analog sketchbooks on paper. Digital tools designed for planning and managing food forests may provide valuable assistance in various ways:
They might help you visualize the layout of your food forest, ensuring that each plant is placed in the optimal spot for growth and interaction. To manage the resources of your food forest, track the health and needs of your plants, manage watering schedules, and receive reminders for maintenance tasks. Monitor the species present in your food forest, helping you maintain a balanced and thriving ecosystem. You might even want to share your progress and insights with a community of like-minded individuals, learning from others and contributing to collective knowledge.

Envisioning the Digital Tool for Food Forest Design

Integrating Information Gathering and Planning
Before any seeds are sown, it's crucial to gather and process information about the surroundings. This semi-automated process involves collecting data on biodiversity, weather patterns, soil composition, and water quality. The system recommends suitable crops based on this information, considering the season and proximity to other crops. Users can manually adjust the data to reflect unique plot features, such as reduced sunlight or specific soil conditions.

Creating a Virtual Representation of the Garden

Users can draw garden plots on an interactive map, which then serves as the foundation for planning their food forest. The system divides each plot into up to four vertical layers, suggesting appropriate plants for each layer based on the collected data. Choosing a crop for one layer dynamically adjusts the options for the other layers, promoting beneficial plant synergies.

Tracking and Maintaining the Garden

Once the garden is set up, the tool provides detailed information about the crops, including synergies, disharmonies, and weather impacts. Synthetic quality bars offer quick feedback on various aspects of the garden, such as crop performance and soil suitability. A text box suggests actions based on the gathered data, encouraging users to apply permaculture principles like reusing plant matter.
Users can log information in a comprehensive plant diary, noting crop quality, unusual conditions, timestamps, and images. This diary can be shared with others or used for personal reflection and learning.
Possible layout of a food forest. Generated using AI models.
Possible layout of a food forest. Generated using AI models.

Overcoming Challenges in Digital Permaculture

Shifting from Paper to Digital

Permaculture practitioners often plan and log their activities on paper, making the shift to digital methods challenging. To address this, the digital tool must enhance their existing knowledge and introduce new, effective practices. A robust digital solution can provide more accurate, comprehensive, and easily accessible data.

Bridging Anecdotal and Scientific Knowledge

Permaculture knowledge is often anecdotal, derived from hands-on experience rather than scientific literature. A thorough review of permaculture books, reports, and guidelines is needed to distill common knowledge and develop scientifically accepted guidelines. This involves categorizing, quantifying, and analyzing anecdotal evidence for patterns and trends.

Integrating Diverse Data Sources

Collecting and integrating information about a specific food forest area can be challenging. The tool must manage and synthesize diverse data sources to provide useful insights. Allowing users to manually adjust the data can help ensure its accuracy and relevance.

Collecting and Utilizing Knowledge

To develop a comprehensive food forest design tool, it's essential to gather knowledge from various stakeholders and sources. Interviews, surveys, and workshops with permaculture practitioners can capture hands-on experience, qualitative observations, best practices, and design principles. A literature review of permaculture books and reports can distill qualitative observations and design principles. Data on ecosystems, weather patterns, soil composition, and water quality can be collected through API calls and web scraping. Quantitative statistical tests from experiments can evaluate the efficacy of the developed system and identify areas for improvement. Additionally, surveys and communication with permaculture communities and forums can gather anecdotal evidence and validate the tool’s suggestions.

List of possible API’s

To get started on collecting information using available API’s, I’ve gathered the following list of API’s to get you started:
🌿 Species of crops and occurrences: https://techdocs.gbif.org/en/openapi/v1/species
🏖️ Current weather, forecasts, daily aggregation and overviews: https://openweathermap.org/api
🪱 pH, soil organic carbon content, bulk density and much more: https://www.isric.org/explore/soilgrids
💦 Water body and quality, rainfall data and much more: https://api.wateratlas.usf.edu/Docs
🌾 Great API for general information on crops, spread, companions, place of growth, and much more: https://www.growstuff.org/

Rethinking Software Engineering for Permaculture

Developing a permaculture tool requires software engineers to methodically process anecdotal evidence by structuring data, algorithms, and design principles derived from literature and expert knowledge to extract qualitative insights. Nature, as a stakeholder, needs to be observed and her requirements integrated into the application. Engineers must analyze, categorize, and extract patterns from unstructured data before integrating it into a functional system.

Success Criteria for the Food Forest Tool

Evaluating the success of the food forest design tool involves several criteria. Feedback from permaculture experts through professional evaluations, interviews, and usability metrics can assess the tool’s usefulness. As a beginner, using the tool to set up a food forest and documenting its success in terms of crop growth and yield can provide valuable insights. Measuring improvements in biodiversity, soil quality, and ecosystem health after creating a food forest can indicate the impact on surrounding nature. User studies can determine changes in perceived productivity and confidence among practitioners. Finally, creating and validating multiple food forest layouts in different biomes and seasons can ensure the tool’s suggestions are practical and effective.

Envisioning the User Interface

The user interface for the food forest design tool should be intuitive and informative. An interactive map allows users to draw garden plots and receive real-time data on suitable crops. Detailed information about crop synergies, disharmonies, and weather impacts is displayed, with synthetic quality bars providing quick feedback. A plant diary feature enables users to log information and share their experiences.
Wireframe for an application called SYNER. Used for planning and logging information about a food forest. Desktop version.
Wireframe for an application called SYNER. Used for planning and logging information about a food forest. Desktop version.
SYNER - Systematic Planning, Yield Optimizing, Natural Cycles Integrating, Evaluation and Comparison, Resource Integrating Application. Mobile version.
SYNER - Systematic Planning, Yield Optimizing, Natural Cycles Integrating, Evaluation and Comparison, Resource Integrating Application. Mobile version.
By integrating technology with permaculture principles, this digital tool aims to simplify and enhance the process of designing and maintaining a food forest, making sustainable agriculture more accessible and effective for practitioners of all levels.